juglone tolerant perennials

Juglone tolerant perennials are an excellent choice for gardeners looking to add color and texture to their landscape. These hardy plants are able to withstand the presence of juglone, a chemical found in the leaves, roots, and fruits of walnut trees. By choosing juglone tolerant perennials, gardeners can enjoy beautiful blooms without worrying about damage to their other plants. These versatile plants come in a wide range of colors and sizes, making them a great addition to any garden.Hosta, commonly known as Plantain Lily, is a genus of plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae. It is native to northeastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, and the Russian Far East) but widely cultivated elsewhere. There are approximately 40-50 species of Hosta with a great variety of foliage forms and colors. They are popular garden plants with attractive foliage that comes in various shades of green, yellow and blue-green. In addition to their attractive foliage, Hosta also produces tall flower stalks often bearing bell or funnel-shaped flowers in white or lavender shades. The best time to plant Hostas is in early spring when the soil is moist and cool. They will grow in partial shade to full sun exposures depending on the variety and can be propagated through division or cuttings.

Varieties of Daylilies

Daylilies are an incredibly diverse group of flowers, with thousands of varieties available in the world. There are many different kinds of daylilies, with different colors, sizes, shapes, and patterns. The most popular daylily variety is the classic orange daylily. This type is a bright orange color and has a classic bell-shape. It is one of the most common daylily varieties found in gardens around the world.


Daylilies come in a variety of species, with each species having its own unique characteristics. Some species have larger blooms than others, and some have a more striking pattern or coloration. The most common daylily species are Hemerocallis fulva, Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus, and Hemerocallis citrina. Each one has its own unique traits and colors that make it stand out from the others.

Growing Daylilies

Daylilies are easy to grow and maintain in any garden or flower bed. They prefer full sun but will tolerate some shade as well. They require well-drained soil and regular watering to thrive. It is important to fertilize them twice a year with a balanced fertilizer to ensure they get all of the nutrients they need for growth and flowering.


Daylilies require minimal care to thrive in the garden. Deadheading spent blooms can help encourage reblooming throughout the season, as can dividing clumps every few years to keep them healthy and vigorous. They also benefit from some mulching during hot summer months to keep their roots cool and moist.

Uses for Daylily Flowers

Daylily flowers have many uses both in and out of the garden. They make beautiful cut flowers for bouquets or floral arrangements. They also attract pollinators such as bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds into gardens which helps other plants thrive nearby. Their bright colors make them a great addition to any outdoor space or landscape design as well.

History and Origin

The genus Euphorbia is native to the Old World, from Macaronesia east through tropical Africa and tropical Asia to Queensland in Australia. The plant family Euphorbiaceae is a large family of flowering plants, mostly herbs, shrubs or trees with milky juice and it includes more than 300 genera and 7500 species. The name Euphorbia derives from Euphorbus, the Greek physician of King Juba II of Numidia (52–50 BC–23 AD).


Most species of Euphorbia are annual or perennial herbs, although some are woody shrubs or even trees. The leaves are alternate, rarely opposite or whorled. Many species have long taproots. In most species, the plant produces a milky latex when injured.

The flowers of euphorbias are unisexual and often inconspicuous. Some species can change sex from male to female flowers on the same plant or from one generation to another.

The fruits often have 3-5 cells containing mostly 3-5 seeds each. In a few species the fruits have two valves that open when ripe.


Euphorbias are used as ornamental plants in gardens. Some of them are also used as medicinal plants due to their antiseptic properties. They can be used for treating skin diseases like eczema and psoriasis. They can also be used for treating wounds as well as snake bites.

In some parts of the world, they are also used as food sources. The young shoots and leaves can be eaten raw or cooked while the seeds can be roasted and eaten like nuts.

Euphorbias also produce wax which is used in making candles, soaps and other products.

Ornamental Grasses

Ornamental grasses are an excellent way to add texture and movement to a garden. They provide a contrast to more traditional plants and bring a sense of the wild into the landscape. With their ever-changing colors, shapes, and sizes, they can be used in a variety of ways to create beautiful visual interest. From small tufts of grasses tucked into flower beds, to towering grasses that form an impressive backdrop, there are many types of ornamental grasses available for use in the garden.

These versatile plants can be used to create stunning focal points in the garden or as a backdrop for other plantings. They come in various heights, from low-growing varieties that make excellent groundcovers to larger varieties that can reach up to 2 meters tall. Ornamental grasses also come in an array of colors including shades of green, yellow, orange, pink and red. Some variegated varieties even have stripes or patches of color for added interest.

In addition to providing visual interest, ornamental grasses also offer numerous benefits for wildlife. The foliage provides shelter and food for birds and small mammals while the seed heads provide food for insects. Many ornamental grasses attract beneficial pollinators such as bees and butterflies which help keep plants healthy and productive. Ornamental grasses also require less maintenance than other plants as they are drought tolerant and do not need frequent pruning or fertilizing.

When selecting ornamental grasses for your garden it is important to choose varieties that are adapted to your climate zone. Different types of ornamental grasses prefer different light conditions so be sure to research which type would work best in your area before planting. It is also important to note that some types of ornamental grass can become invasive so it is best to choose non-invasive varieties or those labeled as “cold hardy”. With proper care and selection, ornamental grasses can be a wonderful addition to any landscape bringing texture, movement and wildlife value!

Types of Sedum

Sedum is a genus of succulent plants in the family Crassulaceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. There are more than 400 species of sedums, ranging from low-growing ground covers to tall, upright plants. Some popular types of sedums include stonecrop, orpine, jelly bean plant and burro’s tail. Each type has its own unique characteristics and can be used in many different ways in the garden.

Stonecrop (Sedum spp.) is one of the most popular types of sedums because it is easy to grow and has an attractive foliage. It grows low to the ground in a mat-like form and produces star-shaped yellow flowers during the summer months. Stonecrop can be used as a ground cover or edging plant and does well in dry conditions.

Orpine (Sedum telephium) is an upright type of sedum that has thick gray-green leaves and pinkish-white flowers that bloom during late summer. Orpine makes a great accent plant for borders or rock gardens and can also be used as an edible herb in salads or soups.

Jelly bean plant (Sedum rubrotinctum) is a low-growing sedum with fleshy blue-green leaves that resemble jelly beans. It produces small yellow flowers during late summer and is often used as an edging plant or as a ground cover in areas with poor soil drainage.

Burro’s tail (Sedum morganianum) is an unusual type of sedum that has slender stems covered with tiny blue-green leaves that resemble tails. It produces small white flowers during late summer and makes an interesting addition to hanging baskets or trailing over walls or containers.


Undefined is a term used in computer programming languages to represent a value that has not been assigned or set. It is generally represented as a keyword or special symbol, such as ‘undefined’, ‘nil’, or ‘null’. In some programming languages, undefined may be used to represent an unspecified number of values.

When a variable is defined but not initialized in a program, the value of that variable may be undefined. This means that the program does not know what its value should be and therefore will not assign any specific value to it. If the variable is used before it is assigned any value in the code, the program will usually throw an error indicating an undefined variable.

Undefined values can also occur when comparing two variables in a program. If one of the variables has an undefined value, the comparison operation may return a result of either true or false depending on which language is being used and how it handles such cases.

Additionally, undefined can also refer to conditions where an output from a program is expected but no output is returned from it. This most commonly occurs when there are no results returned from a function call or query. In this case, the output would be considered undefined as there was no result returned from it.

In short, undefined can refer to values that have not been assigned yet or those that have no specified output from a program call or comparison operation. It is important to keep track of every variable and its corresponding values in order to ensure that all operations are performed correctly and without any errors occurring due to an unexpected undefined value being encountered in code execution.


Undefined is a term used in computer programming to describe a variable that has been declared, but not yet given a value. In other words, it is a placeholder for something that will be assigned later. An undefined variable has no type and no value, so it cannot be used in calculations or other operations until it is defined. It is important to keep track of undefined variables because they can cause unexpected errors in programs.

When a programming language encounters an undefined variable, it will usually throw an error message or warning. This helps the programmer identify the problem and determine how to fix it. For example, if the programmer tries to use an undefined variable in a calculation, the language might throw an error saying that the variable does not exist. The programmer can then go back and define the variable before continuing with the program.

Sometimes programmers intentionally create undefined variables as placeholders for future values. These can be useful when writing code that needs to be flexible enough to handle different types of data. For instance, if a program needs to take user input and store it in a list, the programmer could declare a list of undefined variables and then assign values to them when the user enters them.

In summary, undefined is an important concept for any programmer to understand. It allows them to create flexible code that can handle different types of data without throwing errors. Knowing how to define and use undefined variables properly can help ensure that programs run smoothly and without unexpected errors.


Undefined is a term used in programming language to refer to a data type. It is usually used to represent an unknown or uninitialized value. The undefined data type will appear in the code when the programmer has not yet assigned any value to the variable or if the variable does not exist. It can also be used to indicate that a function does not return any value.

In most programming languages, such as Java and JavaScript, undefined is considered a primitive data type. In other languages, such as Python and Ruby, it is usually an object or class. In either case, it is important to be aware of what this data type means and how it can affect your program’s execution.

When working with undefined values in your program, it is important to be aware of how these values are being handled. For example, if you are writing a function that uses an undefined argument, you should make sure that the function handles it correctly by either returning an appropriate error message or assigning a default value. Additionally, when comparing two values with == (equals) operator, it is important to remember that two undefined values will never be equal since they can never have the same value.

In conclusion, understanding what undefined means and how you should handle it in your code will help you write more robust programs and spot potential bugs quickly. Knowing when and why this data type appears will also save you time debugging your code since you will be able to quickly identify where the problem lies.


Juglone tolerant perennials are a great way to provide variety and beauty to your garden while ensuring that plants which may be sensitive to juglone, such as tomatoes and peppers, will not be affected. By choosing perennial plants that are tolerant of juglone, you can create a beautiful garden with more drought-resistant plants that can withstand extended periods of dry weather. Additionally, selecting perennials that are tolerant of juglone will help to ensure that your garden will remain healthy for years to come. With careful selection and proper care, these juglone tolerant perennials can provide an attractive addition to any garden.

When selecting perennials for your garden, it is important to take into consideration the soil composition and the particular needs of each plant in order to ensure that it is able to thrive in its environment. If you are growing plants near black walnut trees, it may be beneficial to select varieties that are known to tolerate juglone. By doing so, you can be sure that your plants will remain healthy and productive for years to come.